Varieties of pumps and their characteristics

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Varieties of pumps and their characteristics

The pump is a hydraulic device designed to move liquid and gaseous substances.

Nowadays, several types of pumps are offered, among which two main ones can be distinguished: positive displacement and dynamic. For positive displacement pumps, the working part is a changing chamber size. Water moves in them due to the force of pressure. In such models, engine energy is converted into fluid energy.

Types of positive displacement pumps
Positive displacement pumps are:

Rotary. They move fluid by means of rotors, cams or blades located in a fixed housing;
Gear. They are characterized by forced displacement, formed due to the change in volumes in the connected gears;
Impeller. In them, a wheel with blades rotates inside the structure. As a result, the blades are displaced and displace water;
Cam. Here, the water is moved inside the housing by rotating rotors. Cam models, like the K 90/20 pump, are able to move substances with large inclusions, therefore they are used in the manufacture of food and medicines;
Peristaltic. They have a flexible sleeve made up of several elastomeric layers. The motor drives a shaft equipped with rollers. The rollers squeeze the delivery sleeve, which sets the fluid in motion;
Screw. They have a rotor made of metal with a helical configuration. Rotating, the rotor changes the volume of the cavities. As a result, the liquid is displaced from them and moves along the pump sleeve.

In dynamic pumps, there is a double transformation of energy. They are characterized by uniform flow and inability to self-priming.

Types of dynamic pumps
Dynamic pumps are:

Centrifugal. In them, the liquid passes through the impeller. As a result, the speed increases as well as the potential energy;
Vortex. These pumps are similar to centrifugal pumps. But their dimensions are somewhat smaller, which negatively affects the efficiency of devices, which is no more than 40 percent. They are unable to move water, which contains abrasive particles. These particles spoil the walls of the gaps;
Inkjet. Pumps are divided into water jet and airlift pumps. Water-jet models are also called "hydraulic elevators". Such models are driven by the transfer of the kinetic energy possessed by the working substance to the pumped water. In airlifts, air is compressed in the compressor and moves under the action of the lifting force of the air bubbles.

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